Local control of protein binding and cell adhesion by patterned organic thin films
Control of the cell adhesion and growth on chemically patterned surfaces is important in an increasing number of applications in biotechnology and medicine, for example implants, in-vitro cellular assays, and biochips. This review covers patterning techniques for organic thin films suitable for site-directed guidance of cell adhesion to surfaces. Available surface patterning techniques are critically evaluated, with special emphasis on surface chemistry that can be switched in time and space during cultivation of cells. Examples from the authors’ laboratory include the use of cell-repellent selfassembled monolayers (SAM) terminated by oligoethylene glycol (OEG) units and the lifting of the cell repellent properties by use of electrogenerated Br2/HOBr which can be performed with positionable microelectrodes. Structural changes of the SAM were analyzed by polarizationmodulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM IRRAS). Use of a soft array system of individually addressable microelectrodes enables formation of flexible and complex patterns in a short time and has the potential for further acceleration of probe-induced local manipulation of cell adhesion.