Representation of Vehicle Dynamics in Haptic Teleoperation of Aerial Robots
This paper considers the question providing effective feedback of vehicle dynamic forces to a pilot in haptic teleoperation of aerial robots. We claim that the usual state-of-the-art haptic interface, based on research motivated by robotic manipulator slaves and virtual haptic environments, does a poor job of reflecting dynamic forces of a mobile robotic vehicle to the user. This leads us to propose a novel new force feedback user interface for mobile robotic vehicles with dynamics. An analysis of the closed-loop force-displacement transfer functions experienced by the master joystick for the classical and the new approach clearly indicate the advantages of proposed formulation. Both the classical and the proposed approach have been implemented in the teleoperation of a quadrotor vehicle and we present quantitative and cognitive performance data from a user study that corroborates the expected performance advantages.