000183656 001__ 183656
000183656 005__ 20190103085937.0
000183656 022__ $$a0167-6105
000183656 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1016/j.jweia.2012.03.022
000183656 02470 $$2ISI$$a000306881900007
000183656 02470 $$2DOI$$a10.1016/j.jweia.2012.03.022
000183656 037__ $$aARTICLE
000183656 245__ $$aMapping frequencies of icing on structures in Switzerland
000183656 269__ $$a2012
000183656 260__ $$c2012
000183656 300__ $$a7
000183656 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000183656 520__ $$aIcing of structures is a problem for wind energy production in cold regions and makes careful planning of new projects essential. This study presents and evaluates a method to create a map showing the frequency of meteorological icing in Switzerland. Icing is simulated for two single years using an algorithm which calculates ice accumulation from temperature, wind speed, cloud and rain water content of the atmosphere. The driving meteorology was obtained from analysis runs of the weather forecast model COSMO-2 with 2.2 km grid size. The quality of the icing map is evaluated for the two years and compared to the 10 years average by using measurements of 165 meteorological stations in the Swiss Alps. Icing frequencies of the wind sensors at the stations were detected based on measured temperature, relative humidity and the standard deviation of the lateral movement of the wind sensor. The icing map shows appropriate regional patterns with icing frequencies ranging from zero to more than 100 day icing per year in accordance with our measurements. However, individual stations often showed strong deviations between modelled and measured icing frequency, especially in high alpine regions. These deviations are caused by a strong spatial icing variability due to local terrain features which cannot be captured by the model at 2.2 km resolution. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
000183656 6531_ $$aIcing frequency
000183656 6531_ $$aWind energy
000183656 6531_ $$aCOSMO
000183656 6531_ $$aIcing map
000183656 6531_ $$aIcing algorithm
000183656 700__ $$aGrünewald, Thomas
000183656 700__ $$aDierer, Silke
000183656 700__ $$aCattin, René
000183656 700__ $$aSteiner, Philippe
000183656 700__ $$aSteinkogler, Walter
000183656 700__ $$aFundel, Felix
000183656 700__ $$aLehning, Michael
000183656 773__ $$j107-108$$q76-82$$tJournal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics
000183656 8560_ $$falain.borel@epfl.ch
000183656 909C0 $$0252326$$pCRYOS$$xU12533
000183656 909CO $$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:183656$$particle$$pENAC
000183656 917Z8 $$x219016
000183656 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-183656
000183656 973__ $$aEPFL$$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED
000183656 980__ $$aARTICLE