Thermodynamics of continuous media with electromagnetic fields
The thermodynamics of an electrically charged, multicomponent continuous medium with electromagnetic fields is analysed in the non-relativistic limit. Applying locally the first and second law of thermodynamics and Maxwell’s equations for a linear theory of electromagnetism, three equations characterising the continuous medium are derived: a thermostatic equilibrium equation, a reversible and an irreversible thermodynamic evolution equation. For a local thermodynamic equilibrium, explicit expressions for the temperature and the chemical potentials in terms of the electromagnetic fields are obtained. The linear phenomenological relations describe novel effects of non-uniform electromagnetic fields on the transport equations and account also for magnetoresistance and optical tweezers.