From A to E: Analyzing TPC’s OLTP Benchmarks -- The obsolete, the ubiquitous, the unexplored
Introduced in 2007, TPC-E is the most recently standardized OLTP benchmark by TPC. Even though TPC-E has already been around for six years, it has not gained the popularity of its predecessor TPC-C: all the published results for TPC-E use a single database vendor’s product. TPC-E is significantly different than its predecessors. Some of its distinguishing characteristics are the non-uniform input creation, longer-running and more complicated transactions, more difficult partitioning etc. These factors slow down the adoption of TPC-E. In turn, there is little knowledge in the community about how TPC-E behaves micro-architecturally and within the database engine. To shed light on TPC-E, we implement it on top of a scalable open-source database engine, Shore-MT, and perform a workload characterization study, comparing it with the previous, much better known OLTP benchmarks of TPC: TPC-B and TPC-C. In parallel, we study the evolution of the OLTP benchmarks throughout the decades. Our results demonstrate that TPC-E exhibits similar micro-architectural behavior to TPC-B and TPC-C, even though it incurs less stall time and higher instructions per cycle. On the other hand, within the database engine it suffers more from logical lock contention. Therefore, we argue that, on the hardware side, TPC-E needs less aggressive processors. Whereas on the software side it can benefit from designs based on intra-transaction parallelism, logical partitioning, and optimistic concurrency control to minimize the effects of lock contention without introducing distributed transactions.