Journal article

Redistribution of pump power and impairments in gain-equalized distributed fiber Raman amplifiers due to four-wave mixing and parametric amplification

In this work, by using a comprehensive numerical model which rigorously describes the interaction between stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM), we verify that FWM processes, including depletion and parametric gain, generate a redistribution of pump power in distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs). As a consequence of pump–pump FWM, several FWM components can be generated, which act as new sources of SRS for Raman pumping. Due to new SRS–FWM interactions, a redistribution and exchange of pump power along the fiber also occurs, producing degradation in the performance of the amplifier. Numerical results show impairments in distributed amplified systems due to these interactions, such as loss of flatness on the spectral gain, reduction on the net Raman gain, and the presence of strong FWM products within the transmission band. We note that the localization of the zero dispersion wavelength (λZD) of the fiber is a critical factor in the occurrence of these impairments. A reduction of net Raman gain up to 3 dB and tilt up to 7 dB in the spectral gain profile have been found in different amplified systems as consequence of pump–pump FWM and parametric gain of Raman pumps.

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