Journal article

Analysis of distributed temperature sensing based on Raman scattering using OTDR coding and discrete Raman amplification

The behaviour of distributed temperature sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering and coded OTDR (optical time domain reflectometry) is studied both theoretically and experimentally; in particular a high performance scheme has been implemented using amplitude modulation according to Simplex coding, direct detection and additional use of lumped Raman amplification to further extend the sensing range. An efficient and cost-effective distributed temperature sensing system operating along 30 km of dispersion-shifted fibre with 17 m spatial resolution and 5 K temperature resolution is theoretically demonstrated and experimentally achieved using 255 bit Simplex coding and low-power commercially available laser diodes (80 mW CW power). Use of lumped Raman amplification to produce high-power coded pulses allows further 10 km distance enhancement, resulting in a total measurement range of 40 km.

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