Mechanical load distribution along the main cutting edges in drilling
Used in a very large variety of applications, drilling is one of the most complex manufacturing processes. Most of the research on drilling was done in the field of metal cutting since, in this case, high precision and quality are needed. The use of composite materials in engineering applications has increased in recent years, and in many of these applications drilling is one of the most critical stages in the manufacturing process. Delamination and extensive tool wear, affecting the quality and the costs, are among the problems which drilling of composite materials are currently facing. Understanding and predicting the cutting forces occurring during drilling of such materials would allow extending the currently used optimization methods and proposing new tool geometries and tool materials. The current paper introduces a new mechanistic model for predicting the cutting force distribution along the cutting edges of a drill. A simple, generic and effective method is proposed to relate drilling to oblique cutting using a direction cosine transformation matrix valid for any drill geometry. The oblique cutting model used considers forces on both rake and relief faces, and a simple system of empirical coefficients (their number is significantly less than other similar models). The empirical coefficients are calculated assuming the work-piece material is isotropic. The model is validated on experiments carried out on carbon-fiber and glass-fiber reinforced composites using two different drill types (tapered drill reamer and 2-facet twist drill), which are described in more detail in a previous published paper. The mathematical expression of the drill geometry is also reviewed; removing certain assumption, generalizing some definitions and introducing new drill geometry and features.