Physiological simulation of blood flow in the aorta: comparison of hemodynamic indices as predicted by 3-D FSI, 3-D rigid wall and 1-D models
Interest in patient-specific blood-flow circulation modeling has increased substantially in recent years. The availability of clinical data for geometric and elastic properties together with efficient numerical methods has now made model rendering feasible. This work uses 3-D fluid structure interaction (FSI) to provide physiological simulation resulting in modeling with a high level of detail. Comparisons are made between results using FSI and rigid wall models. The relevance of wall compliance in determining parameters of clinical importance, such as wall shear stress, is discussed together with the significance of differences found in the pressure and flow waveforms when using the 1-D model. Patient-specific geometry of the aorta and its branches was based on MRI angiography data. The arterial wall was created with a variable thickness. The boundary conditions for the fluid domain were pressure waveform at the ascending aorta and flow for each outlet. The waveforms were obtained using a 1-D model validated by in-vivo measurements performed on the same person. In order to mimic the mechanical effect of surrounding tissues in the simulation, a stress-displacement relation was applied to the arterial wall. The temporal variation and spatial patterns of wall shear stress are presented in the aortic arch and thoracic aorta together with differences using rigid wall and FSI models. A comparison of the 3-D simulations to the 1-D model shows good reproduction of the pressure and flow waveforms.