Journal article

Hydraulic design of A-type Piano Key Weirs

Piano Key Weirs (PKWs) are an alternative to linear overflow structures, increasing the unit discharge for similar heads and spillway widths. Thus, they allow to operate reservoirs with elevated supply levels, thereby providing additional storage volume. As they are relatively novel structures, few design criteria are available. Hence, physical model tests of prototypes are required. This study describes comprehensive model tests on a sectional set-up of several A-type PKWs, in which the relevant parameters were systematically varied. Considering data of former studies, a general design equation relating to the head–discharge ratio is derived and discussed. The latter is mainly a function of the approach flow head, the developed crest length, the inlet key height, and the transverse width. To extend its application range, case study model tests were analysed to provide a design approach if reservoir approach flow instead of channel flow is considered.

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