Infoscience

Thesis

Reduced Models for Optimal Control, Shape Optimization and Inverse Problems in Haemodynamics

The objective of this thesis is to develop reduced models for the numerical solution of optimal control, shape optimization and inverse problems. In all these cases suitable functionals of state variables have to be minimized. State variables are solutions of a partial differential equation (PDE), representing a constraint for the minimization problem. The solution of these problems induce large computational costs due to the numerical discretization of PDEs and to iterative procedures usually required by numerical optimization (many-query context). In order to reduce the computational complexity, we take advantage of the reduced basis (RB) approximation for parametrized PDEs, once the state problem has been reformulated in parametrized form. This method enables a rapid and reliable approximation of parametrized PDEs by constructing low-dimensional, problem-specific approximation spaces. In case of PDEs defined over domains of variable shapes (e.g. in shape optimization problems) we need to introduce suitable, low-dimensional shape parametrization techniques in order to tackle the geometrical complexity. Free-Form Deformations and Radial-Basis Functions techniques have been analyzed and successfully applied with this aim. We analyze the reduced framework built by coupling these tools and apply it to the solution of optimal control and shape optimization problems. Robust optimization problems under uncertain conditions are also taken into consideration. Moreover, both deterministic and Bayesian frameworks are set in order to tackle inverse identification problems. As state equations, we consider steady viscous flow problems described by Stokes or Navier-Stokes equations, for which we provide a detailed analysis and construction of RB approximation and a posteriori error estimation. Several numerical test cases are also illustrated to show efficacy and reliability of RB approximations. We exploit this general reduced framework to solve some optimization and inverse problems arising in haemodynamics. More specifically, we focus on the optimal design of cardiovascular prostheses, such as bypass grafts, and on inverse identification of pathological conditions or flow/shape features in realistic parametrized geometries, such as carotid artery bifurcations.

Related material