Plasma wall interaction and its implication in an all tungsten divertor tokamak
ASDEX Upgrade has recently finished its transition towards an all-W divertor tokamak, by the exchange of the last remaining graphite tiles to W-coated ones. The plasma start-up was performed without prior boronization. It was found that the large He content in the plasma, resulting from DC glow discharges for conditioning, leads to a confinement reduction. After the change to D glow for inter-shot conditioning, the He content quickly dropped and, in parallel, the usual H-Mode confinement with H factors close to one was achieved. After the initial conditioning phase, oxygen concentrations similar to that in previous campaigns with boronizations could be achieved. Despite the removal of all macroscopic carbon sources, no strong change in C influxes and C content could be observed so far. The W concentrations are similar to the ones measured previously in discharges with old boronization and only partial coverage of the surfaces with W. Concomitantly it is found that although the W erosion flux in the divertor is larger than the W sources in the main chamber in most of the scenarios, it plays only a minor role for the W content in the main plasma. For large antenna distances and strong gas puffing, ICRH power coupling could be optimized to reduce the W influxes. This allowed a similar increase of stored energy as yielded with comparable beam power. However, a strong increase of radiated power and a loss of H-Mode was observed for conditions with high temperature edge plasma close to the antennas. The use of ECRH allowed keeping the central peaking of the W concentration low and even phases of improved H-modes have already been achieved.