Thermal contraction and disordering of the Al(110) surface
Al(110) has been studied for temperatures up to 900 K via ensemble density-functional molecular dynamics. The strong anharmonicity displayed by this surface results in a negative coefficient of thermal expansion, where the first interlayer distance decreases with increasing temperature. Very shallow channels of oscillation for the second-layer atoms in the direction perpendicular to the surface support this anomalous contraction, and provide a novel mechanism for the formation of adatom-vacancy pairs, preliminary to the disordering and premelting transition. Such characteristic behaviour originates in the free-electron-gas bonding at a loosely packed surface. [S0031-9007(99)08925-5].