Why Nothing Matters: The Impact of Zeroing
Memory safety defends against inadvertent and malicious misuse of memory that may compromise program correctness and security. A critical element of memory safety is zero initialization. The direct cost of zero initialization is surprisingly high: up to 12.7%, with average costs ranging from 2.7 to 4.5% on a high performance virtual machine on IA32 architectures. Zero initialization also incurs indirect costs due to its memory bandwidth demands and cache displacement effects. Existing virtual machines either: a) minimize direct costs by zeroing in large blocks, or b) minimize indirect costs by zeroing in the allocation sequence, which reduces cache displacement and bandwidth. This paper evaluates the two widely used zero initialization designs, showing that they make different tradeoffs to achieve very similar performance.