In order to assess the influence of longitudinal relaxation on previously reported variations in 31P NMR signals during brain development, we used an accelerated two-point technique to determine T1 at 2.35 Tesla in 8 min. Comparison between 10 normal neonates (age range 37-46 weeks postconception) and 10 healthy infants (age range 80-157 weeks postconception) indicated that T1 does not vary substantially during the first year of life, except in the phosphomonoester (PME) region of the spectra. T1 of total PME decreases with age which we could explain by its variable multicomponent nature: The signal from (unresolved) components at the downfield shoulder of PME (attributed mostly to phosphorylethanolamine at 6.72 ppm) with a T1 of at least 6.4 s decreases with age relative to contributions from other phosphomonoester compounds resonating predominantly at the upfield side of the peak (approximately 6.3 ppm), with T1 below 2.9 s. Because the T1 heterogeneity of PME may depend on its relative composition, quantitative 31P NMR spectroscopy may require an assessment of the influence of longitudinal relaxation on the signal amplitudes in each measurement.