Currently, the different pollutant emissions caused by the use of fossil energies are an increasingly important concern and numerous studies aim at developing technological solutions allowing the progressive replacement of the fossil energies by more sustainable and less harmful energy sources. In the context of heating for domestic applications, the prospective substitution of gas or fuel oil boilers by electrical heat pumps is typically a part of this problematic. This Ph.D thesis participates, in the frame of an industrial partnership, in the development of a high performance domestic heat pump through the study of the control circuits of the high speed electrical drive, mandatory for such heating systems. In order to generalize the presented work, this study is completed by considerations about high speed drives tailored for generation. The differences and similitudes between motor and generator modes are presented in the whole document. The first part of this document is constituted of an introductory chapter allowing to place this study in its context and to define the main concepts and hypothesis used all along this document. The second part of this document, formed by two chapters, is dedicated to the study of the structure of the power electronics. Chapter 2 covers the systematic choice of a topology and its specific command strategy for the implementation of the machine interface stage. Two commonly encountered solutions are compared regarding their adequacy with a previously defined optimal command criterion. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the study of the intermediate DC/DC converter. Based on the Energetic Macroscopic Representation, a formal study is conducted in order to show that the use of a multilevel topology can lead to increasing the whole drive performance and decreasing the power electronics circuits size. The control aspects are covered in the third part of this thesis. In chapter 4, a survey of sensorless technics is presented. The specific features of some sensorless technics are discussed regarding their adequacy with the consequences of the choice of the machine interface state topology and command strategy. Chapter 5 is dedicated to control strategies allowing to regulate the speed in the case of a motor mode and the torque in a generator mode. The two last parts of this document conclude it. The fourth part, constituted of chapter 6, presents the experimental validations of the various theoretical results described all along the document. The last chapter is the final conclusion of this work. The conducted work is summarized, the main results are described, and the perspectives for future works are given.