Journal article

Uptake of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution on Nano-Sized Hydroxyapatite: Examination of a Fluoridated Surface Layer

Hydroxyapatite (Ca-10(PO4)(6)(OH)(2), HAP), both as a synthetic material and as a constituent of bone char, can serve as an effective and relatively inexpensive filter material for fluoride (F-) removal from drinking water in low-income countries. Fluoride uptake on HAP can occur through different mechanisms, which are, in principle, influenced by solution composition. Suspensions of HAP (2 g L-1) were equilibrated under controlled pH conditions (pH 6.5, 7.3, 9.5) at 25 degrees C for 28 d after the addition of different F- concentrations (0.5-7.0 mM). The reacted HAP solids were examined with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (NanoSIMS). Fluoride uptake on HAP was dependent on pH, with the highest capacity at pH 6.5; the lowest uptake was found at pH 9.5. Under all experimental conditions, the thermodynamically stable mineral phase was fluorapatite, (Ca-10(PO4)(6)F-2, FAP). Fluoride uptake capacity was quantified on the basis of FTIR and XPS analysis, which was consistent with F- uptake from solution. The results of XPS and NanoSIMS analyses indicate that a fluoridated surface layer with a thickness of several nanometers is formed on nanosized HAP.


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