Journal article

Talbot images of wavelength-scale amplitude gratings

By means of experiment and simulation, we achieve unprecedented insights into the formation of Talbot images to be observed in transmission for light diffracted at wavelength-scale amplitude gratings. Emphasis is put on disclosing the impact and the interplay of various diffraction orders to the formation of Talbot images. They can be manipulated by selective filtering in the Fourier plane. Experiments are performed with a high-resolution interference microscope that measures the amplitude and phase of fields in real-space. Simulations have been performed using rigorous diffraction theory. Specific phase features, such as singularities found in the Talbot images, are discussed. This detailed analysis helps to understand the response of fine gratings. It provides moreover new insights into the fundamental properties of gratings that often find use in applications such as, e.g., lithography, sensing, and imaging. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America

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