On the heating mix of ITER
This paper considers the heating mix of ITER for the two main scenarios. Presently, 73 MW of absorbed power are foreseen in the mix 20/33/20 for ECH, NBI and ICH. Given a sufficient edge stability, Q = 10-the goal of scenario 2-can be reached with 40MW power irrespective of the heating method but depends sensitively inter alia on the H-mode pedestal temperature, the density profile shape and on the characteristics of impurity transport. ICH preferentially heats the ions and would contribute specifically with Delta Q < 1.5. The success of the Q = 5 steady-state scenario 4 with reduced current requires discharges with improved confinement necessitating weakly or strongly reversed shear, f(bs) > 0.5, and strong off-axis current drive (CD). The findings presented here are based on revised CD efficiencies gamma for ECCD and a detailed benchmark of several CD codes. With ECCD alone, the goals of scenario 4 can hardly be reached. Efficient off-axis CD is only possible with NBI. With beams, inductive discharges with f(ni) > 0.8 can be maintained for 3000 s. The conclusion of this study is that the present heating mix of ITER is appropriate. It provides the necessary actuators to induce in a flexible way the best possible scenarios. The development risks of NBI at 1 MeV can be reduced by operation at 0.85 MeV.