000174564 001__ 174564
000174564 005__ 20190604054639.0
000174564 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.136
000174564 022__ $$a1053-8119
000174564 02470 $$2ISI$$a000302926600004
000174564 037__ $$aARTICLE
000174564 245__ $$aThe timing of exploratory decision-making revealed by single-trial topographic EEG analyses
000174564 269__ $$a2012
000174564 260__ $$bElsevier$$c2012
000174564 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000174564 520__ $$aDecision-making in an uncertain environment is driven by two major needs: exploring the environment to gather information or exploiting acquired knowledge to maximize reward. The neural processes underlying exploratory decision-making have been mainly studied by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging, overlooking any information about the time when decisions are made. Here, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment, in order to detect the time when the brain generators responsible for these decisions have been sufficiently activated to lead to the next decision. Our analyses, based on a classification scheme, extract time-unlocked voltage topographies during reward presentation and use them to predict the type of decisions made on the subsequent trial. Classification accuracy, measured as the area under the Receiver Operator's Characteristic curve was on average 0.65 across 7 subjects. Classification accuracy was above chance levels already after 516 ms on average, across subjects. We speculate that decisions were already made before this critical period, as confirmed by a positive correlation with reaction times across subjects. On an individual subject basis, distributed source estimations were performed on the extracted topographies to statistically evaluate the neural correlates of decision-making. For trials leading to exploration, there was significantly higher activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right supramarginal gyrus; areas responsible for modulating behavior under risk and deduction. No area was more active during exploitation. We show for the first time the temporal evolution of differential patterns of brain activation in an exploratory decision-making task on a single-trial basis.
000174564 6531_ $$aDecision-making
000174564 6531_ $$aTiming
000174564 6531_ $$aEEG
000174564 6531_ $$aSingle-trial
000174564 6531_ $$aExploration-Exploitation
000174564 700__ $$aTzovara, Athina
000174564 700__ $$aMurray, Micah
000174564 700__ $$0242174$$g174078$$aBourdaud, Nicolas
000174564 700__ $$0241256$$g137762$$aChavarriaga, Ricardo
000174564 700__ $$aMillán, José del R.$$g149175$$0240030
000174564 700__ $$aDe Lucia, Marzia
000174564 773__ $$j4$$tNeuroimage$$k1$$q1959-1969
000174564 8564_ $$uhttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/174564/files/Tzovara_Neuroimage_preprint.pdf$$zPreprint$$s1375718$$yPreprint
000174564 909C0 $$xU12599$$0252517$$pCNP
000174564 909C0 $$pCNBI$$xU12103$$0252018
000174564 909CO $$qGLOBAL_SET$$pSTI$$particle$$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:174564
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 917Z8 $$x137762
000174564 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-174564
000174564 973__ $$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED$$aEPFL
000174564 980__ $$aARTICLE