000174078 001__ 174078
000174078 005__ 20180913061100.0
000174078 022__ $$a1469-5111
000174078 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1017/S1461145711001799
000174078 037__ $$aARTICLE
000174078 245__ $$aNeurobehavioural activation during peripheral immunosuppression
000174078 269__ $$a2013
000174078 260__ $$c2013
000174078 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000174078 520__ $$aLike other physiological responses, immune functions are the subject of behavioural conditioning. Conditioned immunosuppression can be induced by contingently pairing a novel taste with an injection of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) in an associative learning paradigm. This learned immunosuppression is centrally mediated by the insular cortex and the amygdala. However, the afferent mechanisms by which the brain detects CsA are not understood. In this study we analysed whether CsA is sensed via the chemosensitive vagus nerve or whether CsA directly acts on the brain. Our experiments revealed that a single peripheral administration of CsA increases neuronal activity in the insular cortex and the amygdala as evident from increased electric activity, c-Fos expression and amygdaloid noradrenaline release. However, this increased neuronal activity was not affected by prior vagal deafferentation but rather seems to partially be induced by direct action of CsA on cortico-amygdaloid structures and the chemosensitive brainstem regions area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. Together, these data indicate that CsA as an unconditioned stimulus may directly act on the brain by a still unknown transduction mechanism.
000174078 700__ $$aPacheco-López, Gustavo
000174078 700__ $$aDoenlen, Raphael
000174078 700__ $$aKrügel, Ute
000174078 700__ $$aArnold, Myrtha
000174078 700__ $$aWirth, Timo
000174078 700__ $$aRiether, Carsten
000174078 700__ $$aEngler, Andrea
000174078 700__ $$aNiemi, Maj-Britt
000174078 700__ $$aChristians, Uwe
000174078 700__ $$aEngler, Harald
000174078 700__ $$aSchedlowski, Manfred
000174078 773__ $$j16$$k1$$q137-149$$tThe international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP)
000174078 909C0 $$0252372$$pSV$$xU10445
000174078 909CO $$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:174078$$pSV$$particle
000174078 917Z8 $$x188367
000174078 917Z8 $$x148230
000174078 917Z8 $$x148230
000174078 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-174078
000174078 973__ $$aOTHER$$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED
000174078 980__ $$aARTICLE