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Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial antigen-presenting cells that can drastically change the development of an immune response by polarising T helper cells toward a Th1 or a Th2 phenotype. Heligmosomoides polygyrus, a murine model of human helminth, has been shown to strongly down-regulate its host immune response. At the DC level, its excretory/secretory products (HES) modulate the cytokine response and co-stimulatory marker expression to bacterial stimulation in favour of an antiinflammatory environment. A regulatory T cell-inducing TGF[beta]-like activity was also discovered in HES. In this work, we further characterised the immunomodulatory properties of HES and heat-inactivated HES both in vitro, using LPS-pulsed GM-CSF-grown bone marrowderived DCs, and in in vivo adoptive transfer of HES-, bacterial extract- or co-pulsed DCs. To determine if the TGF[beta], C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) or toll-like receptors (TLRs) were implicated in this immunomodulation, we treated DCs with blocking antibodies, chemical kinase inhibitors and grew DCs from knockout mice. These studies revealed that HES immunomodulation of DCs was independent of the TGF[beta] receptor, the two CLRs, Dectin-1 and 2, as well as any TLR. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), which is crucial for the signalling of many CLRs, and phosphoinositide 3- kinase seemed not to be needed as well. In an attempt to reduce the number of potential immunomodulators in HES, HES size fractions were tested for their ability to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production of DCs. The activity was limited to few fractions, fraction 14 being the most potent. Finally, physical interactions between DCs and biotinylated HES were measured by flow cytometry and revealed that CD24, a molecule required for HES interactions with B cells, was implicated, but not crucial. HES binding to CD24-/- DCs was reduced, but the LPS-induced cytokines and co-stimulatory markers levels were still down-regulated upon HES co-treatment.