Trace-Level Detection of Atrazine Using Immuno-Chemiluminescence: Dipstick and Automated Flow Injection Analyses Formats
A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL)-based immunoassay technique based on both dipstick and flow injection analytical formats is reported for the detection of atrazine. In the dipstick-based immunoassay technique, antibody (anti-atrazine) was first immobilized on the nitrocellulose membranes. The dipstick was then treated with atrazine and atrazine-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (atra-HRP) to facilitate the competitive binding. The dipstick was further treated with urea-hydrogen peroxide (U-H2O2) and luminol to generate photons. The number of photons generated was inversely proportional to the atrazine concentration. In the flow injection analysis (FIA) format, the antibody was immobilized on protein-A sepharose matrix and packed in a glass capillary column, which functioned as an immunoreactor. Competitive binding of antigen and antibody occurred. The CL signals generated during the biochemical reactions were correlated with atrazine concentrations in the analytical samples. By using dipstick technique, it was possible to detect atrazine concentration down to 0.1 ng/mL; with the FIA format, the detection of atrazine was down to 0.01 ng/mL.