Biomolecule Patterning on Analytical Devices: A Microfabrication-Compatible Approach
The present work describes a methodology for patterning biomolecules on silicon-based analytical devices that reconciles 3-D biological functionalization with standard resist lift-off techniques. Unlike classic sol gel approaches in which the biomolecule of interest is introduced within the sol mixture, a two-stage scenario has been developed. It consists first of patterning micrometer submicrometer polycondensate scaffold structures. using classic microfabrication tools, that are then loaded with native biomolecules via a second simple incubation step under biologically friendly environmental conditions. The common compatibility issue between the biological and microfabrication worlds has been circumvented because native recognition biomolecules can be introduced into the host scaffold downstream from all compatibility issues. The scaffold can be generated on any silicon substrate via the polycondensation of aminosilane, namely, aminopropyltriethoxy silane (APTES), under conditions that are fully compatible with resist mask lithography. The scaffold porosity and high primary. amine content allow proteins and nucleic acid sequences to penetrate the polycondensate and to interact strongly, thus giving rise to micrometer/submicrometer 3-D structures exhibiting high biological activity, The integration of such a biopatterning approach in the microfabrication process of silicon analytical devices has been demonstrated via the successful completion of immunoassays and nucleic acid assays.