Journal article

Cosmic Evolution Of Virial And Stellar Mass In Massive Early-Type Galaxies

We measure the average mass properties of a sample of 41 strong gravitational lenses at moderate redshift (z similar to 0.4-0.9) and present the lens redshift for six of these galaxies for the first time. Using the techniques of strong and weak gravitational lensing on archival data obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope, we determine that the average mass overdensity profile of the lenses can be fit with a power-law profile (Delta Sigma proportional to R-0.86 +/- 0.16) that is within 1 sigma of an isothermal profile (Delta Sigma proportional to R-1) with velocity dispersion sigma(upsilon) = 260 +/- 20 km s(-1). Additionally, we use a two-component de Vaucouleurs + Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model to disentangle the total mass profile into separate luminous and dark matter components and determine the relative fraction of each component. We measure the average rest frame V-band stellar mass-to-light ratio (gamma(V) = 4.0 +/- 0.6hM(circle dot)/L-circle dot) and virial mass-to-light ratio (tau(V) = 300 +/- 90h M-circle dot/L-circle dot) for our sample, resulting in a virial-to-stellar mass ratio of M-vir/M-* = 75 +/- 25. Relaxing the NFW assumption, we estimate that changing the inner slope of the dark matter profile by similar to 20% yields a similar to 30% change in stellar mass-to-light ratio. Finally, we compare our results to a previous study using low-redshift lenses to understand how galaxy mass profiles evolve over time. We investigate the evolution of M-vir/M-*(z) = alpha(1 + z)(beta), and find best-fit parameters of alpha = 51 +/- 36 and beta = 0.9 +/- 1.8, constraining the growth of virial-to-stellar mass ratio over the last similar to 7 Gyr. We note that, by using a sample of strong lenses, we are able to constrain the growth of M-vir/M-*(z) without making any assumptions about the initial mass function of the stellar population.


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