The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a highly vascularized soft connective tissue. Previous studies suggest that the viscous component of the mechanical response may be explained by the deformation-induced collapse and expansion of internal voids (i.e. chiefly blood vessels) interacting with liquids (i.e. blood and interstitial fluids) flowing through the pores. In the present work we propose a methodology by means of which the morphology of the PDL vascular plexus can be monitored at different levels of compressive and tensile strains. To this end, 4-mm-diameter cylindrical specimens, comprising layers of bone, PDL and dentin covered by cementum, were strained at stretch ratios ranging from lambda = 0.6 to lambda = 1.4 and scanned using synchrotron radiation-based computer tomography. It was concluded that: (1) the PDL vascular network is layered in two distinct planes of blood vessels (BVs): an inner layer (close to the tooth), in which the BVs run in apico-coronal direction, and an outer layer (close to the alveolar bone), in which the BVs distribution is more diffuse; (2) during tension and compression, the porosity tissue is kept fairly constant; (3) mechanical straining induces important changes in BV diameters, possibly modifying the permeability of the PDL and thus contributing to the viscous component of the viscoelastic response observed under compressive forces.