Journal article

Effects of sonochemical parameters and inorganic ions during the sonochemical degradation of crystal violet in water

This work deals with the ultrasonic degradation (800 kHz) of crystal violet (CV) under different experimental conditions. The effects of saturating gas (argon, carbon dioxide and air), CV concentration (2.45-1225 mu mol L-1), pH (3-9) and power (20-80 W) were evaluated. The best performances were obtained at 80 W with argon as a saturating gas. The pH had no significant effect. The influence of several water matrices containing anions (chloride, sulphate and bicarbonate) and cations (Fe2+) on the sonolytic degradation of CV was also investigated. Significant differences were not observed with the presence of chloride and sulphate. However, at relatively low pollutant concentration (2.45 mmol L-1) bicarbonate showed a particular effect: a high bicarbonate concentration (350 mmol L-1) produced a detrimental effect, while a low bicarbonate concentration (3 mmol L-1) increased the efficiency of the process. The presence of Fe2+ (1 mmol L-1) also increased the CV (49 mu mol L-1) degradation by 32% after 180 min. Analyses of intermediates by GC-MS led to the identification of several sonochemical by-products: N,N-dimethylaminobenzene, 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)-4'-(N',N'-dimethylamino)benzophenone, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethy1-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane. The presence of these aromatic structures showed that the main ultrasonic CV degradation pathway is linked to the reaction with (OH)-O-center dot radicals. At the end of the treatment, these early products were converted into biodegradable organic by-products which could be easily treated in a subsequent biological treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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