Glass transition associated with the jamming of vibrated granular matter
We investigate a vibrated granular system composed of millimeter-size glass beads. When the system is submitted to a perturbation with decreasing intensity, below the fluidization limit, it evolves in a way similar to glass-forming liquids until it reaches an amorphous jammed state. This jamming transition is observed by the means of an immersed oscillator, either in the free or forced mode, while the granular medium is submitted to an external perturbation at a fixed frequency or within a frequency band. The complex susceptibility of the oscillator is measured as a function of the probe forcing frequency or as a function of the perturbation intensity. Data show that the jamming dynamics is "activated," similarly to thermal systems. The empirical control parameter is found proportional to the square root of the vibration intensity and inversely proportional to the vibration frequency. In the case of broadband external vibration, the average frequency of the power spectrum has to be considered.