Journal article

Macro-to-microchannel transition in two-phase flow: Part 2-Flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux

This part of the paper presents the current experimental flow boiling heat transfer and CHF data acquired for R134a, R236fa and R245fa in single, horizontal channels of 1.03, 2.20 and 3.04 mm diameters over a range of experimental conditions. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of channel confinement, heat flux, flow pattern, saturation temperature, subcooling and working fluid properties on the two-phase heat transfer and CHF. Experimentally, it was observed that the flow boiling heat transfer coefficients are a significant function of the type of two-phase flow pattern. Furthermore, the monotonically increasing heat transfer coefficients at higher vapor qualities, corresponding to annular flow, signifies convective boiling as the dominant heat transfer mechanism in these small scale channels. The decreasing heat transfer trend at low vapor qualities in the slug flow (coalescing bubble dominated regime) was indicative of thin film evaporation with intermittent dry patch formation and rewetting at these conditions. The coalescing bubble flow heat transfer data were well predicted by the three-zone model when setting the dryout thickness to the measured surface roughness, indicating for the first time a roughness effect on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in this regime. The CHF data acquired during the experimental campaign indicated the influence of saturation temperature, mass velocity, channel confinement and fluid properties on CHF but no influence of inlet subcooling for the conditions tested. When globally comparing the CHF values for R134a in the 0.51-3.04 mm diameter channels, a peak in CHF peak was observed lying in between the 0.79 (Co approximate to 0.99) and 1.03 (Co approximate to 0.78) mm channels. A new CHF correlation has been proposed involving the confinement number, Co that is able to predict CHF for R134a, R236fa and R245fa in single-circular channels, rectangular multichannels and split flow rectangular multichannels. In summary, the present flow boiling and CHF trends point to a macro-to-microscale transition as indicated by the results presented in Ong and Thome (2011) [1]. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Related material