We use time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with sub-30-fs extreme-ultraviolet pulses to map the time- and momentum-dependent electronic structure of photoexcited 1T-TaS2. This compound is a two-dimensional Mott insulator with charge-density wave ordering. Charge order, evidenced by splitting between occupied subbands at the Brillouin zone boundary, melts well before the lattice responds. This challenges the view of a charge-density wave caused by electron-phonon coupling and Fermi-surface nesting alone, and suggests that electronic correlations play a key role in driving charge order.