Journal article

Chute Aerators : Steep Deflectors and Cavity Subpressure

Chute aerators are applied to high-velocity spillways to entrain air into the flow so that cavitation damage is avoided. Air entrainment occurs locally at the aerator, whereas further downstream the flow is deaerated. This process is relevant because it defines the influence range of an aerator. A preliminary study investigated the effect of the aerator geometry and of the approach flow conditions on the streamwise bottom and average air concentration characteristics. Two aspects were excluded, namely, the effect of (1) steep deflectors, which operate more efficiently regarding air entrainment yet with simultaneously poor flow features; and (2) cavity subpressure effect on the streamwise air concentration field. A cavity subpressure reduces, in particular, the streamwise bottom air concentrations or it provokes aerator choking so that the cavitation protection is not ensured. Physical model tests indicate that optimum aerator performance results at deflector angles around 10°, i.e., a slope of 1∶5 relative to the chute bottom with acceptable shock wave formation, spray generation, and jet height


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