A methodology for modeling multi-layered structures is presented. The formulation is easily utilized in the framework of existing structural analysis programs to compute internal forces and the global and local deformations of multi-layered structural members and systems. The methodology is fully applied and verified for the case of multi-layered timber beams with semi-rigid connections between the layers. The verifications are performed using both static experimentation and detailed computational modeling with linear and nonlinear finite element analyses. Extension to curved members is also included where emphasis is focused on residual stresses due to construction procedures of layered timber arches. Finally, experimental and computational demonstration of the methodology is given from timber ribbed shells where reasonable agreement between model predictions and experiments is illustrated. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.