A mathematical model is applied to the Aoste Valley (Italy), which is a good example of the hydrological workings of alluvial rock basin aquifers in mountainous regions. The course of the Dorea Baltea follows the valley, which between the altitudes of 500 and 600 m is dominated by summits reaching more than 3000 m. The lacustrine- and fluviatile-type sedimentary deposits are accompanied by several alluvial cones that, due to their varying nature, confer very diverse hydrodynamic characteristics to the land. In this particular context, the source and drainage of the Dorea control the hydrodynamics of the aquifers and influence the spatial dispersion of the physicochemical properties of the groundwater. The model also led to quantify and determine the zones and types of exchanges with the river. Simulation of lowering the water table in the river showed the variable sensitivity of the water table piezometry with various spatial impacts. Finally, the stream-aquifer impact is highlighted by the spatial evolution of the sulphate contents coming from deep lateral sources. Taking into account the stream-aquifer exchanges in an underground-flow mathematical model gives a better understanding of the workings of the valley aquifers and thus their management, especially for the development of watercourses in mountainous regions.