Journal article

Real-time physics-model-based simulation of the current density profile in tokamak plasmas

A new paradigm is presented to reconstruct the plasma current density profile in a tokamak in real-time. The traditional method of basing the reconstruction on real-time diagnostics combined with a real-time Grad-Shafranov solver suffers from the difficulty of obtaining reliable internal current profile measurements with sufficient spatial and temporal accuracy to have a complete picture of the profile evolution at all times. A new methodology is proposed in which the plasma current density profile is simulated in real-time by solving the first-principle physics-based equations determining its evolution. Effectively, an interpretative transport simulation similar to those run today in post-plasma shot analysis is performed in real-time. This provides real-time reconstructions of the current density profile with spatial and temporal resolution constrained only by the capabilities of the computational platform used and not by the available diagnostics or the choice of basis functions. The diagnostic measurements available in real-time are used to constrain and improve the accuracy of the simulated profiles. Estimates of other plasma quantities, related to the current density profile, become available in real-time as well. The implementation of the proposed paradigm in the TCV tokamak is discussed, and its successful use in plasma experiments is demonstrated. This framework opens up the possibility of unifying $q$ profile reconstructions across different tokamaks using a common physics model and will support a wealth of applications in which improved real-time knowledge of the plasma state is used for feedback control, disruption avoidance, scenario monitoring, and external disturbance estimation.

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