We describe an overview of the experimental chemistry and mineralogy of the Earth. The extreme pressure (1 to 365 GPa) and temperature (1000 to 6000 K) conditions prevailing in the deep Earth can be reproduced in the laboratory with shock techniques, multianvil presses and laser heated diamond anvil cells. They allow to determine the mineral structures stable at Various depths in the planet as well as the chemical elements they can host. They also permit to explore possible reactions between the molten iron-rich core and the solid silicate-rich mantle (at 2900 km depth) which occur at pressures of 130 GPa and temperatures of the order of 3000 K. They also provide constraints about possible hosts minerals for CO2 or C in the deepest region of the planet.