000167298 001__ 167298
000167298 005__ 20180913060715.0
000167298 02470 $$2ISI$$a000181592800002
000167298 037__ $$aARTICLE
000167298 245__ $$aOzonation of drinking water: Part II. Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine
000167298 269__ $$a2003
000167298 260__ $$c2003
000167298 336__ $$aReviews
000167298 520__ $$aOzone is an excellent disinfectant and can even be used to inactivate microorganisms such as protozoa which are very resistant to conventional disinfectants. Proper rate constants for the inactivation of microorganisms are only available for six species (E coli, Bacillus subtilis spores, Rotavirus, Giardia lamblia cysts, Giardia muris cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts). The apparent activation energy for the inactivation of bacteria is in the same order as most chemical reactions (35-50 kJ mol(-1)), whereas it is much higher for the inactivation of protozoa (80 kJ mol(-1)). This requires significantly higher ozone exposures at low temperatures to get a similar inactivation for protozoa. Even for the inactivation of resistant microorganisms, OH radicals only play a minor role. Numerous organic and inorganic ozonation disinfection/oxidation by-products have been identified. The by-product of main concern is bromate, which is formed in bromide-containing waters. A low drinking water standard of 10 mug l(-1) has been set for bromate. Therefore, disinfection and oxidation processes have to be evaluated to fulfil these criteria. In certain cases, when bromide concentrations are above about 50 mug l(-1), it may be necessary to use control measures to lower bromate formation (lowering of pH, ammonia addition). Iodate is the main by-product formed during ozonation of iodidecontaining waters. The reactions involved are direct ozone oxidations. Iodate is considered non-problematic because it is transformed back to iodide endogenically. Chloride cannot be oxidized during ozonation processes under drinking water conditions. Chlorate is only formed if a preoxidation by chlorine and/or chlorine dioxide has occured. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
000167298 6531_ $$aozone
000167298 6531_ $$adisinfection
000167298 6531_ $$adisinfection by-products
000167298 6531_ $$abromate
000167298 6531_ $$achlorate
000167298 6531_ $$aiodate
000167298 6531_ $$aOf-The-Art
000167298 6531_ $$aCryptosporidium-Parvum Oocysts
000167298 6531_ $$aGranular Activated Carbon
000167298 6531_ $$aDissociating Organic-Compounds
000167298 6531_ $$aBromate Ion Removal
000167298 6531_ $$aRate Constants
000167298 6531_ $$aInorganic-Compounds
000167298 6531_ $$aOzone Applications
000167298 6531_ $$aAqueous-Solution
000167298 6531_ $$aGiardia-Muris
000167298 700__ $$g210253$$avon Gunten, U.$$0245482
000167298 773__ $$j37$$tWater Research$$q1469-1487
000167298 909C0 $$xU12400$$0252250$$pLTQE
000167298 909CO $$preview$$pENAC$$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:167298
000167298 937__ $$aEPFL-REVIEW-167298
000167298 973__ $$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED$$aOTHER
000167298 980__ $$aREVIEW