The basics of oxidants in water treatment. Part B: ozone reactions
The oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds during ozonation can occur via ozone or OH radicals or a combination thereof. Ozone is an electrophile with a high selectivity. The reactions of ozone with cc inorganic compounds are typically fast and occur by an oxygen atom transfer reaction. Organic micropollutants are oxidised with ozone selectively. Ozone reacts mainly with double bonds, activated aromatic systems and non-protonated amines. The kinetics of direct ozone reactions depend strongly on the speciation (acid-base, metal complexation). The reaction of OH radicals with the majority of inorganic and organic compounds is nearly diffusion-controlled. The degree of oxidation by ozone and OH radicals is given by the corresponding kinetics M M and the ratio of the concentration of the two oxidants. Product formation from the ozonation of organic micropollutants has only been established for a few compounds. Numerous organic and inorganic ozonation disinfection/oxidation byproducts have been identified. The byproduct of main concern is bromate, which is formed in bromide-containing waters. A low drinking water standard of 10 mu gL(-1), has been set for bromate. In certain cases (bromide > similar to 50 mu gL(-1)), it may be necessary to use control measures to lower bromate formation (lowering of pH, ammonia addition, chlorination-ammonia process).
Keywords: drinking water ; micropollutant oxidation ; ozone ; wastewater ; Dissociating Organic-Compounds ; Rate Constants ; Drinking-Water ; Inorganic-Compounds ; Hydroxyl Radicals ; Product Formation ; Aqueous-Solution ; Ozonation ; Disinfection ; Oxidation
Record created on 2011-07-01, modified on 2016-08-09