Phototransformation of selected pharmaceuticals during UV treatment of drinking water
The kinetics of Ultraviolet C (UV-C)-induced direct phototransformation of four representative pharmaceuticals, i.e., 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diclofenac, sulfa methoxazole, and iopromide, was investigated in dilute solutions of pure water buffered at various pH values using a low-pressure and a medium-pressure mercury arc lamp. Except for iopromide, pH-dependent rate constants were observed, which could be related to acid-base equilibria. Quantum yields for direct phototransforrnation were found to be largely wavelength-independent, except for EE2. This compound, which also had a rather inefficient direct phototransformation, mainly underwent indirect phototransformation in natural water samples, while the UV-induced depletion of the other pharmaceuticals appeared to be unaffected by the presence of natural water components. At the UV-C (254nm) drinking-water disinfection fluence (dose) of 400 J m(-2), the degree of depletion of the select pharmaceuticals at pH = 7.0 in pure water was 0.4% for EE2, 27% for diclofenac, 15% for sulfamethoxazole, and 15% for iopromide, indicating that phototransformation should be seriously taken into account when evaluating the possibility of formation of UV transformation products from pharmaceuticals present as micropollutants. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: drinking water ; UV disinfection ; photolysis ; photodegyradation ; quantum yield ; 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol ; Advanced Oxidation Processes ; Photochemical Fate ; Aquatic Environment ; Heterocyclic Groups ; Aromatic Ketones ; Sulfa Drugs ; Phenols ; Photodegradation ; Disinfection ; Degradation
Record created on 2011-07-01, modified on 2016-08-09