A system on chip (SoC) can provide an integrated solution to challenging design problems in the telecommunications, multimedia, and consumer electronics domains. Much of the progress in these fields hinges on the designers' ability to conceive complex electronic engines under strong time-to- market pressure. Success will require using appropriate design and process technologies, as well as interconnecting existing components reliably in a plug-and- play fashion. Focusing on using probabilistic metrics such as average values or variance to quantify design objectives such as performance and power will lead to a major change in SoC design methodologies. Overall, these designs will be based on both deterministic and stochastic models. Creating complex SoCs requires modular, component-based approach to both hardware and software design. Despite numerous challenges, the authors believe that developers will solve the problems of designing SoC networks. At the same time, they believe that a layered-micronetwork design methodology will likely be the only path to mastering the complexity of future SoC designs.