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The scientific challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine development are unprecedented in the history of vaccinology. As a result, investigators, funders, and other stakeholders generally agree that “game-changing” ideas are required. While innovation can certainly arise from investigators at all career stages, young and early-career investigators, defined as those under 40 years of age or within 10 years of their final degree or clinical training, are especially key contributors of novel and transformative ideas. Young and early-career investigators bring energy, enthusiasm, and fresh perspectives that are unbiased by prevailing dogma and that are essential to scientific progress