Using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy we investigate the electronic valence band structure of the Si(331)-(12 × 1) surface reconstruction for which we recently proposed a structural model containing silicon pentamers as elementary structural building blocks. We find that this surface, reported to be metallic in a previous study, shows a clear band gap at the Fermi energy, indicating semiconducting behavior. An occupied surface state, presumably containing several spectral components, is found centered at −0.6 eV exhibiting a flat energy dispersion. These results are confirmed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and are consistent with recent first-principles calculations for our structural model.