State-feedback model predictive control (MPC) of discrete-time linear periodic systems with time-dependent state and input dimensions is considered. The states and inputs are subject to periodically time-dependent, hard, convex, polyhedral constraints. First, periodic controlled and positively invariant sets are characterized, and a method to determine the maximum periodic controlled and positively invariant sets is derived. The proposed periodic controlled invariant sets are then employed in the design of least-restrictive strongly feasible reference-tracking MPC problems. The proposed periodic positively invariant sets are employed in combination with well-known results on optimal unconstrained periodic linear-quadratic regulation (LQR) to yield constrained periodic LQR control laws that are stabilizing and optimal. One motivation for systems with time-dependent dimensions is efficient control law synthesis for discrete-time systems with asynchronous inputs, for which a novel modeling framework resulting in low dimensional models is proposed. The presented methods are applied to a multirate nano-positioning system.