The kinetics of H2O vapor condensation and evaporation on different types of ice in the range 130-210 K
The kinetics of condensation (kc) and the evaporation flux (J(ev)) of H2O on ice were studied in the range 130-210 K using pulsed-valve and steady-state techniques in a low-pressure flow reactor. The uptake coefficient gamma was measured for different types of ice, namely, condensed (C), bulk (B), single crystal (SC), snow (S), and cubic ice (K). The negative temperature dependence of gamma for C, B, SC, and S ice reveals a precursor-mediated adsorption/desorption process in agreement with the proposal of Davy and Somorjai.(1) The non-Arrhenius behavior of the rate of condensation, kc, manifests itself in a discontinuity in the range 170-190 K depending on the type of ice and is consistent with the precursor model. The average of the energy of sublimation DeltaH(S) degrees is (12.0 +/- 1.4) kcal/mol for C, B, S, and SC ice and is identical within experimental uncertainty between 136 and 210 K. The same is true for the entropy of sublimation DeltaS(S). In contrast, both gamma and the evaporative flux J(ev) are significantly different for different ices. In the range 130-210 K, J(ev) of H2O ice was significantly smaller than the maximum theoretically allowed value. This corroborates gamma values significantly smaller than unity in that T range. On the basis of the present kinetic parameters, the time to complete evaporation of a small ice particle of radius 1 mum is approximately a factor of 5 larger than that previously thought.