Hexyl-aminolevulinate-mediated photodynamic therapy: how to spare normal urothelium. An in vitro approach.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of superficial bladder cancer may cause damages to the normal surrounding bladder wall. Prevention of these is important for bladder healing. We studied the influence of photosensitizer concentration, irradiation parameters, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the photodynamically induced damage in the porcine urothelium invitro. The aim was to determine the threshold conditions for the cell survival.