Fluorescence cystoscopy: Perspective in clinical practice and research
Many studies confirm the clinical interest of photodynamic diagnostics (PDD) in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer management. PDD or fluorescence cystoscopy is not only of great value in occult urothelial cancer detection, but may have a positive impact on disease-free survival and prognosis. Yet, its specificity is found to be highly variable between studies mainly in relation to different disease profiles. New imaging techniques aimed at enhancing visualization to assess the bladder wall are under development.