Journal article

Self-entrainment of air on stepped spillways

The pseudo-bottom-inception point related to air entrainment is located further upstream on stepped spillways than on smooth spillways, for otherwise identical conditions. Its position is relevant concerning cavitation aspects, flow losses and flow depths. This Paper presents and discusses visual observations made with a high-speed camera and air concentration measurements in the vicinity of the pseudobottom air inception point on a stepped model spillway. Insight into the bottom aeration processes is provided, pointing at the effects of dynamic and turbulent air-phase surface troughs instantaneously protruding to the pseudo-bottom. In addition, the measured data were analyzed with regard to the extensions of these surface troughs. The trough bases were found to reach approximately 70–80% of the mixture flow depth upstream of the inception point, to 60–70% at the inception point and to 40–50% at the equilibrium flow region downstream of the inception point. The highly-turbulent character of developed flow is described and the general air transport process specified on the basis of air concentrations and related parameters.


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