Models of the arterial tree.
The arterial system can be modelled by means of distributed analogs and by lumped parameter representations, such as the Windkessel. The distributed models, together with biological data, lead to the explanation of arterial function in terms of pressure and flow. The lumped parameter models form the basis of arterial compliance and characteristic impedance estimation. They also make comparison between mammals possible and it could be shown that input impedance, when scaled, is similar in mammals.