Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a vascular remodeling process which often leads to failure of arterial bypass or hemodialysis access. Experimental and clinical work have provided insight in IH development; however, further studies under precise controlled conditions are required to improve therapeutic strategies to inhibit IH development. Ex vivo perfusion of human vessel segments under standardized hemodynamic conditions may provide an adequate experimental approach for this purpose. Therefore, chronically perfused venous segments were studied and compared to traditional static culture procedures with regard to functional and histomorphologic characteristics as well as gene expression.