Improvement of Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry in steady and unsteady turbulent open-channel flows by means of seeding with hydrogen bubbles
Velocimetry is used in various fields of research. In hydraulics, Ultrasonic Velocimetry based on the Doppler Shift effect can accurately resolve the quasi-instantaneous flow field [Takeda Y. Velocity profile measurement by Ultrasonic Doppler method. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 1995;10:444-53; Takeda Y. Ultrasonic Doppler method for flow measurement. In: International symposium on advanced fluid information. 2002. p. 69-76] if the acoustic scattering level is sufficiently high. But Ultrasonic velocity instruments are known to perform poorly in clear water with low acoustic scattering level, such as often found in laboratory applications.