Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model and its fingerprint in spatial noise correlations
We explore the pairing properties of the one-dimensional attractive Hubbard model in the presence of finite spin polarization. The correlation exponents for the most important fluctuations are determined as a function of the density and the polarization. We find that in a system with spin population imbalance, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-type pairing at wave vector Q=parallel to k(F,up arrow)-k(F,down arrow)parallel to is always dominant and there is no Chandrasekhar-Clogston limit. We then investigate the case of weakly coupled one-dimensional (1D) systems and determine the region of stability of the 1D FFLO phase. This picture is corroborated by density-matrix-renormalization-group simulations of the spatial noise correlations in uniform and trapped systems, unambiguously revealing the presence of fermion pairs with nonzero momentum Q. This opens up an interesting possibility for experimental studies of FFLO states.